Manifestations of Specific Drugs

Manifestations of Specific Drugs

The classifications of Controlled Substances are:
1. Narcotics: Opium, Heroin, Codeine, Morphine, Methadone
2. Depressants: Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Chloral Hydrate, Methaqualone
3. Stimulants: Amphetamines, Cocaine, Speed
4. Hallucinogens: LSD, Mescaline and Peyote, PCP, Amphetamine Variants
5. Cannabis: Marijuana, THC, Hashish, Hashish Oil

A. The Narcotic Abuser… These individuals are the exceptions and not the rule in work areas. They usually begin by drinking paregoric or cough medicines containing codeine—the presence of empty bottles in wastebaskets or in work area is a clue.
1. Inhaling heroin in powder form leaves traces of white powder around the nostrils causing redness and rawness.
2. Injecting heroin scars the inner surface of the arms and elbows (mainlining). The user usually wears long sleeves.
3. Users often leave syringes, bent spoons, cotton and needles in lockers—this is a telltale sign of an addict.
4. In the work area the user is lethargic, drowsy. His pupils are constricted and fail to respond to light.

B. The Depressant Abuser…
1. Symptoms of alcohol intoxication with one important exception—no odor of alcohol on the breath.
2. Staggering, stumbling or disoriented.
3. May fall asleep.
4. Lacks interest.
5. Is drowsy and may appear disoriented.
6. Slurred speech.

C. The Stimulant Abuser…
1. Causes excess activity—user is irritable, argumentative, nervous and has difficulty sitting still.
2. Pupils are dilated.
3. Mouth and nose are dry with bad breath, causing user to lick his lips frequently and rub and scratch his nose.
4. Chain smoking.
5. Goes long periods without eating or sleeping.
6. Increased alertness.
7. Increased pulse rate and blood pressure.

D. The Hallucinogen Abuser…
1. Illusions and hallucinations.
2. Poor perception of time and distance.
3. Users sit or recline quietly in dream or trancelike state.
4. Users may become fearful and experience a degree of terror which makes them attempt to escape from the group.
5. The drug primarily affects the central nervous system, producing changes in mood and behavior.
6. Perceptual changes involve senses of sight, hearing, touch, body-image and time.

Note: LSD is odorless, tasteless and colorless and may be found in the form of impregnated sugar cubes, cookies, stamps, tattoos, or jewelry. LSD is usually taken orally but may be injected. It is imported in ampules of clear blue liquid.

E. The Cannabis Abuser… Industry’s largest drug problem, marijuana may be smoked or eaten (brownies or cookies). Users are difficult to recognize unless they are observed while under the influence of the drug.
1. At first user may appear animated and hysteri¬cal with rapid, loud talking, bursts of laughter, disoriented behavior.
2. In later stages the user is sleepy or stuporous.
3. Depth perception is distorted, making driving dangerous. Reaction time for motor skills, such as driving, is increased by 41 percent after one marijuana cigarette, 63 percent after smoking two.
4. Increased appetite.
5. Euphoria and relaxed inhibitions.

Note: Marijuana cigarettes are rolled in a double-thickness of brown, off-white or colored cigarette paper. These cigarettes are smaller than a regular cigarette with the paper twisted or tucked in at both ends and with tobacco that is greener in color than regular tobacco. The odor of burning marijuana resembles that of burning weeds or rope. The cigarettes are referred to as “reefers, sticks, Texas tea, pot, rope, Mary Jane, shit, loco weed, jive, grass, hemp, hay.”